Folklore in the Netherlands – Sinterklaas and Zwarte Piet



Sinterklaas is in courtesy of Michell Zappa

Sinterklaas is in town…photo courtesy of Michell Zappa

In the popular folklore of the Low Countries, one figure stands out as a divisive and controversial character.  He is Zwarte Piet, the traditional companion of the mythical Sinterklaas (based on Saint Nicholas) during the festivities leading up to and including Saint Nicholas Day.

But who is he? And why is he causing such a stir?

Saintly Origins

The celebration that spawned the creation of Zwarte Piet centres around Saint Nicholas, a 4th century Christian saint and Greek bishop, who was known for his habit of secretly leaving gifts for those less fortunate, perhaps inspired by the story of the three wise men and their gifts of gold, frankincense and myrrh for the baby Jesus.

Over the centuries, tales of Saint Nicholas’ life have blended with the traditional Nativity chronicles to form the Western celebrations of Christmas most of us are familiar with today, with Santa Claus as one derivative figurehead of this revered holy man.

Another incarnation, Sinterklaas, remains popular in the Netherlands and many other parts of the former Holy Roman Empire. Here, Saint Nicholas Day falls on the 6thDecember.

Holy Roman Empire

Holy Roman Empire

With a Little Help

Instead of elves, Sinterklaas’ ‘little helper’ is the aforementioned Zwarte Piet, whose role is mainly to distribute sweets and pepernoten (spiced biscuits) among the children and to keep them amused and entertained.

I say ‘mainly’…because of course, a lot depends on the children’s behaviour throughout the year, and naughty youngsters may get no more than a dry twig or a piece of coal and a telling off as their present, if they so merit it.

But to all intents and purposes, the role is a charming and benevolent one from most perspectives.

Except in recent times, the character has become the subject of much heated debate and discussion, even resulting in aggressive demonstrations during public festivals.

A Dark Cloud

Zwarte Piet (literally ‘Black Pete’) typically appears as a black-faced individual, with a dark curly wig, red lipstick and often some gaudy earrings, and it’s these connotations of slavery or a caricaturised ‘exotic’ person which create discomfort for many people, akin to the effect of the now frowned-upon golliwog or minstrel figures.

Zwarte Piet in Utrecht, 2016

Zwarte Piet in Utrecht, 2016, only very slightly ‘blacked up’ – a sign of the times?

Why Piet looks the way he does is almost impossible to pin down. He didn’t even appear in the printed version of the Sinterklaas fable until the 1850 book Sint Nikolaas en zijn Knecht (“Saint Nicholas and his Servant”, written by Dutch teacher Jan Schenkman), but his typical clothing represents the dandy finery of late-Renaissance nobility, often with lace collar and feather cap. Although, if you ask me, there are traces of comic servant Harlequin (also 17th century) in his attire.

So something got a little mixed up along the way because the dates don’t match.


Above: The drizzle fails to deter the crowds during the annual Sinterklaas Parade

As for his apparent ethnicity, there have been many explanations over the years, such as him being of Moorish origin. Another suggestion was that those portraying the character could remain incognito by ‘blacking up’ – which begs the question: Why not Groen (green) Piet or Blauw (blue) Piet?

The current favourite, which appeases some, is that his face is blackened by soot due to climbing through chimneys for his gift-delivering duties, but that has been around for a while now, and the debate still seems to heat up anew each year, 2016 being no exception.

Harmonious Vibes

Crowds line the canals in Utrecht during Sinterklaas Parade.

Crowds line the canals in Utrecht during Sinterklaas Parade.

It’s mid-November, Sunday 13th to be precise. Today, on this cold, drizzly morning in the ancient university city of Utrecht, Netherlands, Sinterklaas has arrived with his entourage for his annual parade. He greets the townsfolk as a precursor to the main festivities of the following month and merrily sails or rides his way through the canals or backstreets, spreading cheer and goodwill.

Central Utrecht as Sinterklaas Parade draws to a close

Central Utrecht as Sinterklaas Parade draws to a close


His long-serving sidekick accompanies him – in truth, Sinterklaas has multiple ‘Zwart Piet’ figures helping him out, not just the one.

…because the logistics of cake distribution clearly need to be scaled up for today’s population levels…

When we arrived, Sinterklaas himself had already passed by and was gone, no doubt combing his impressive white beard somewhere before having a well-deserved rest (in other words, our schedule meant we missed the beginning of the parade).


The Zwarte Pieten were still busy in his wake, skipping through the throngs or hauling gifts through store windows. No sign of any discord or unrest here, not today, not in this town.

Here at least, these long-established characters served only to brighten the waterways and cobbled lanes and get the seasonal revelries under way.


Above: The dressed-up and the dressed-down…all townfolk are out in force today

Past, Presents and Future

So what of the future for Sinterklaas’ problematic pal? In the muddied mix of tradition, political correctness and multiple interpretations, it’s hard to find a clear solution that appeals to everyone.

Perception of Zwarte Piet varies greatly among different ethnicities and age groups, but a study last year of youngsters between the ages of 3 and 7 clearly showed they viewed the character as a jolly fantasy figure than an actual black person.

Yet the unease continues to bubble and froth and I’m sure that over time, little changes will be made as a compromise.

Meanwhile, if you really love Christmas and would rather not wait until December 25th, why not go Dutch and start celebrating Sinterklaas?


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What do you think? Is it political correctness gone mad, or a valid grievance against negative stereotyping? And did you know about Sinterklaas?

Disclosure: We stopped very briefly (seriously, it was 2hrs) in Utrecht during a 24hr business trip further north. We were amazingly fortunate to have caught the tail-end of the Sinterklaas Parade.

Sara Dobak

Hi, I’m Sara, founder and writer at Travel Continuum, where I write about my global travel experiences, with a special passion for the stars and sustainability. I believe in the power of education through travel, and here I share the tales and tips that I find interesting and inspiring. I hope that you do too. continuum /kənˈtɪnjʊəm/: a sequence of elements where the extremes are very different, but each individual stage is barely distinguishable from the next. Something that keeps going, changing gradually over time…like the seasons.

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4 Responses

  1. Lucy says:

    What an interesting story, I can see why it’s a bit controversial now but it is important to keep these traditions alive – though black face or not doesn’t seem to matter too much!

    • Sara Dobak says:

      Thanks Lucy – agreed, these traditions have too many good elements to discard, and I’m sure that through healthy discussion a solution can be reached 🙂

  2. I can see both points of view, so I’ll just sit here on the fence, please …if I may. Either way, it looks like a fun time for the family. And those canals look very pretty with the trees in their autumn finery.

    • Sara Dobak says:

      Of course you can sit on the fence – I think it gives a fairer perspective sometimes! It is a challenging situation, however it was great to learn more about the different folkloric origins of ‘our’ Father Christmas character 🙂

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